Nobel Prize Winners Since The Day It Was Given

Nobel Prize Winners Since The Day It Was Given. Nobel Prize winners in Chemistry are presented annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists from various branches of chemistry. The Nobel Prize is based on Alfred Nobel's 1895 will; Awarded to those who have made outstanding contributions in five fields: chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was first awarded in 1901, awarded to Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff from the Netherlands. Each laureate is awarded a medal, a diploma, and cash, the amount of which varies from year to year.
Let's take a look at them now:

1901 Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff Netherlands “…for his discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmosis pressure in solutions…
1902 Hermann Emil Fischer Germany “…for his work on sugar and purine synthesis…”
1903 Svante Arrhenius Sweden “…for the electrolytic theory of dissolution…”
1904 William Ramsay United Kingdom “…for his discovery of inert gaseous elements in air…”
1905 Adolf von Baeyer Germany “…for his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds…”
1906 Henri Moissan France “…for the electric furnace named after him by his research and decomposition of the element fluorine…”
1907 Eduard Buchner Germany “…for his biochemical research and discovery of cell-independent fermentation…”
1908 Ernest Rutherford United Kingdom New Zealand “…for his researches in the fission of the elements and in the chemistry of radioactive materials…”
1909 Wilhelm Ostwald Germany “…for his work on catalysis and his research on chemical equilibrium and chemical reaction rates…”
1910 Otto Wallach Germany “…for his work in the field of alicyclic compounds…”
1911 Marie Curie France “…for his discovery of radium and polonium…”
1912 Victor Grignard France “…for his discovery of the Grignard reagent…”
Paul Sabatier France “…for a method of hydrogenating organic compounds…”
1913 Alfred Werner Switzerland “…for his work on the bonding of atoms in molecules…”
1914 Theodore William Richards United States “…for determining the atomic weight of many elements…”
1915 Richard Martin Willstätter Germany “…for his research on plant pigments…”
1916 (Not awarded )
1917 (Not awarded )
1918 Fritz Haber Germany “…for ammonia synthesis…”
1919 (Not awarded )
1920 Walther Hermann Nernst Germany “…for his work on thermochemistry…”
1921 Frederick Soddy United Kingdom “…for his study of the chemistry of radioactive materials and his exercises on isotopes…”
1922 Francis William Aston United Kingdom “…for his discovery of isotopes in a large number of non-radioactive elements and the integer rule…”
1923 Fritz Pregl Austria “…for his invention of the method of microanalysis of organic substances…”
1924 (Not awarded )
1925 Richard Adolf Zsigmondy Germany “…for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and the methods he used…”
1926 Theodor Svedberg Sweden “…for his work on colloid systems…”
1927 Heinrich Otto Wieland Germany “…for his research on bile acids and related substances…”
1928 Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Germany “…for his research on sterols and their relation to vitamins…”
1929 Arthur Harden United Kingdom
Hans von Euler-Chelpin Germany “…for his researches on sugar fermentation and fermentation enzymes…”
1930 Hans Fischer Germany “…for his research on hemin and chlorophyll…”
1931 Carl Bosch Germany “…for his contributions to chemical high pressure…”
Friedrich Bergius Germany
1932 Irving Langmuir United States “…for his work on surface chemistry…”
1933 (Not awarded )
1934 Harold Clayton Urey United States “…for the discovery of the element deuterium…”
1935 Frédéric Joliot France “…for the synthesis and discovery of new radioactive elements…”
Irene Joliot-CurieFrance
1936 Peter Debye Netherlands “…for his work on X-rays and diffraction of electrons in gases, molecular structure and dipole moments…”
1937 Walter HaworthUnited Kingdom “…for his work on carbohydrates and vitamin c…”
Paul KarrerSwitzerland “…for his work on carotenoids, flavins, vitamins and B2…”
1938 Richard Kuhn Germany “…for his work on carotenoids and vitamins…”
1939 Adolf ButenandtGermany “…for his work on sex hormones…”
Lavoslav Ružička Switzerland “…for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes…”

1940 (Not awarded )
1941 (Not awarded )
1942 (Not awarded )
1943 George de Hevesy Hungary “…for his work in using isotopes as radioactive traces to monitor the course of chemical processes…”
1944 Otto Hahn Germany “…for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei…”
1945 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Finland “…for his research and discoveries in agricultural and nutritional chemistry, especially for the method of feed preservation…”
1946 James B. Sumner United States “…for his discovery of the crystallization of enzymes…”
John Howard Northrop United States “…for obtaining enzymes and virus proteins in pure form…”
Wendell Meredith Stanley United States
1947 Robert Robinson United Kingdom “…for his research on plant products, particularly alkaloids…”
1948 Arne Tiselius Sweden “…for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis…”
1949 William Giauque United States “…for his contributions to the field of chemical thermodynamics…”
1950 Otto Diels West Germany “…for their discovery and development of diene synthesis…”
Kurt Alder Germany
1951 Edwin McMillan United States “…for his discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements…”
Glenn T. Seaborg United States
1952 Archer John Porter Martin United Kingdom “…for their discovery of separation chromatography…”
Richard Laurence Millington Synge United Kingdom
1953 Hermann Staudinger Germany “…for his discoveries in macromolecular chemistry…”
1954 Linus Pauling United States “…for his research on the nature of chemical bonding…”
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud United States “…for his work on sulfur compounds, in particular for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone…”
1956 Cyril Norman Hinshelwood United Kingdom “…for his research on the mechanism of chemical reactions…”
Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov Soviet Union
1957 Alexander R. Todd, Baron Todd United Kingdom “…for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes…”
1958 Frederick Sanger United Kingdom “…for his work on the structure of proteins, especially insulin…”
1959 Jaroslav Heyrovský Czechoslovakia “…for his discovery and development of polarographic analysis methods…”
1960 Willard Libby United States “…for his method of using carbon-14 in age determination…”
1961 Melvin Calvin United States “…for his research on carbon dioxide assimilation by plants…”
1962 Max Perutz United Kingdom “…for his work on the structures of spherical proteins…”
John KendrewUnited Kingdom
1963 Karl Ziegler Germany “…for his discoveries concerning high polymers…”
Giulio Natta Italy
1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin United Kingdom “…for determining the structure of important biochemical substances by X-ray techniques…”
1965 Robert Burns Woodward United States “…for his achievements in organic synthesis…”
1966 Robert S. Mulliken United States “…for his work on chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules…”
1967 Manfred Eigen Germany “…for his work on extremely fast chemical reactions…”
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish United Kingdom
George Porter United Kingdom
1968 Lars Onsager United States “…for his discovery of the bilateral relations that bear his name…”
1969 Derek Barton United Kingdom “…for his contributions to the development of the concept of conformation…”
Odd HasselNorway
1970 Luis F. Leloir Argentina “…for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their function in carbohydrate biosynthesis…”
1971 Gerhard Herzberg Canada “…for his contributions to the electron structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals…”
1972 Christian B. Anfinsen United States “…for his work on ribonuclease…”
Stanford Moore United States “…for his contributions to the understanding of the link between the chemical structure of the ribonuclease molecule and its catalytic activity…”
William H. Stein United States
1973 Ernst Otto Fischer Germany “…for his work on organometal compounds…”
Geoffrey Wilkinson United Kingdom
1974 Paul Flory United States “…for his fundamental theoretical and experimental work on the physical chemistry of macromolecules…”
1975 John Cornforth Australia United Kingdom “…for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions…”
Vladimir Prelog Switzerland “…for his research in the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions…”
1976 William Lipscomb United States “…for his work on the structure of boranes…”
1977 Ilya Prigogine Belgium “…for his contributions to the subject of non-equilibrium thermodynamics…”
1978 Peter D. Mitchell United Kingdom “…for discovering the formulas of the chemiosmotic theory…”
1979 Herbert C. Brown United States “…for their development of use as reagents in organic synthesis of compounds containing boron and phosphorus, respectively…”
Georg Wittig Germany
1980 Paul Berg United States “…for his fundamental work on the biochemistry of nucleic acids, particularly recombinant DNA…”
Walter Gilbert United States “…for his contributions to the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids…”
Frederick Sanger United States
1981 Kenichi Fukui Japan “…for his theories concerning the behavior of chemical reactions…”
Roald Hoffmann United States
1982 Aaron Klug United Kingdom “…for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and for elucidating the structures of nucleic acid-protein complexes of biological importance…”
1983 Henry Taube United States “…for his work on the operation of electron transfer reactions…”
1984 Robert Bruce Merrifield United States “…for his development of a method for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix…”
1985 Herbert A. Hauptman United States “…for their achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures…”
Jerome Karle United States
1986 Dudley R. Herschbach United States “…for his contributions to the dynamics of fundamental chemical processes…”
Yuan T. Lee United States
John C. Polanyi Canada
1987 Donald J. Cram United States “…for their development and use of molecules with high selectivity for structure-specific interactions…”
Jean-Marie Lehn France
Charles J. Pedersen United States
1988 Johann Deisenhofer Germany “…for determining the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction center…”
Robert Huber Germany
Hartmut Michel Germany
1989 Sidney Altman Canada, United States “…for their discovery of the catalytic properties of RNA…”
Thomas Cech United States
1990 Elias James Corey United States “…for developing the theory and methodology of organic synthesis…”
1991 Richard R. Ernst Switzerland “…for his contributions to the development of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy…”
1992 Rudolph A. Marcus United States “…for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems…”
1993 Kary Mullis United States “…for his contributions to the development of methods on DNA-based chemistry…”
Michael Smith Canada
1994 George A. Olah United States “For his contributions to carbocation chemistry”
1995 Paul J. Crutzen Netherlands “For his work on atmospheric chemistry, particularly ozone depletion and formation”
Mario J. Molina Mexico
F. Sherwood Rowland United States
1996 Robert F. Curl, Jr. United States "for discovering fullerenes"
Harold W. Kroto United Kingdom
Richard E. Smalley United States
1997 Paul D. Boyer United States “For their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism by which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is synthesized”
John E Walker United Kingdom
Jens C. Skou Denmark “For the discovery of an ion transport enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase”
1998 Walter Kohn United States “For developing the density functional theory”
John A. Pople UK “For his development of numerical methods in quantum chemistry”
1999 Ahmed H. Zewail Egypt, United States “For his work on the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy”

2000 Alan J. Heeger United States “For the development and discovery of conductive polymers”
Alan G. MacDiarmid United States, New Zealand
Hideki Shirakawa Japan
2001 William S. Knowles United States “For his work on chirally catalyzed hydrogenation reactions”
Ryoji Noyori Japan
K. Barry Sharpless United States “For his work on chirally catalyzed oxidation reactions”
2002 John B. Fenn United States “for developing methods for the identification and analysis of biological macromolecules […] for developing soft desorption ionization methods for mass spectrometric analysis of biological macromolecules”
Koichi Tanaka Japan
Kurt Wüthrich Switzerland “for developing methods for the identification and analysis of biological macromolecules […] for developing nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the determination of the three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules in solution”
2003 Peter Agre United States “for discoveries concerning channels in the cell membrane […] for the discovery of water channels”
Roderick MacKinnon United States “For discoveries concerning channels in the cell membrane […] for the structural and mechanical study of ion channels”
2004 Aaron Ciechanover Israel “For the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”
Avram Hershko Israel
Irwin Rose United States
2005 Yves Chauvin France”For the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”
Robert H. Grubbs United States
Richard R. Schrock United States

2006 Roger D. Kornberg United States “For his work on the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription”
2007 Gerhard Ertl Germany “For his work on chemical processes on solid surfaces”
2008 Osamu Shimomura United States “For the development and discovery of green fluorescent protein (GFP)”
Martin Chalfie United States
Roger Y. Tsien United States
2009 Venkatraman Ramakrishnan UK “function and structure of ribosomes”
Thomas A. Steitz United States
Ada E. Yonath Israel
2010 Richard F. Heck USA “for their discoveries of palladium-catalyzed crosslinks in organic synthesis reactions”
Ei-ichi Negishi United States
Akira Suzuki Japan
2011 Dan Shechtman Israel “for his discovery of quasicrystals…”
2012 Robert Lefkowitz United States “Study of G-protein-coupled receptors system”
Brian Kobilka United States



Source : en.wikipedia

📩 11/08/2013 14:00

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