Fahrettin Altay (born January 12, 1880, Shkodra - Date of death October 25, 1974, Emirgan, Istanbul), soldier and politician, hero of the Turkish War of Independence. After the Battle of Dumlupınar, he was the commander of the first Turkish cavalry to enter İzmir by allowing the Greek Army to withdraw.
He was born on January 12, 1880 in Shkodra, Albania. His father is Infantry Colonel İsmail Bey from İzmir and his mother is Hayriye Hanım. He has a younger brother named Ali Fikri.
His education life was spent in different cities due to his father's job changes. After completing his primary education in Mardin, he completed military high school in Erzincan and military high school in Erzurum. After completing his education at the Istanbul Military Academy, which he entered in 1897 with first place in 1900, he entered the Military Academy. He completed his education in this school in 1902 as the sixth and started his career.
He served 8 years in Dersim and its surroundings, which was his first place of duty. Kolağası in 1905 was promoted to the rank of major in 1908. He married Münime Hanım in 1912; He had two children Hayrünisa and Tarık from this marriage.
II. During the Balkan War, he served as the head of the Çatalca Tribal Cavalry Brigade. He repulsed the Bulgarian Army that came to Edirne.
When World War I started, he was the Chief of Staff of the 3rd Corps. He fought on the Çanakkale Front. During this mission, he met Mustafa Kemal for the first time. After the Battle of Gallipoli, the sword was awarded with gold merit and silver privilege war medals. In 1915, he was appointed to the position of Deputy Undersecretary of the Ministry of War and was promoted to the rank of Miralay the same year. After serving in the Romanian Ibrail Front for a short time, he was sent to the Palestinian Front as the commander of the troops. After the defeat in Palestine, the corps headquarters was moved to Konya. Therefore, he was in Konya as the commander of the 12th Corps at the end of the war.
There were people who carried out national liberation activities around Fahrettin Altay in Konya. He was for some time hesitant about joining the national movement. After the official occupation of Istanbul, his opposition to the decision taken by the Representative Board to cease all relations with Istanbul caused Refet Bey to come to Konya from Afyonkarahisar with his horse troops at his command. Refet Bey came to Sarayönü Station and invited Fahrettin Bey and asked him to bring the governor, the mayor, the mufti, the Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti and the people who were known as opponents. The group was put on the train, accompanied by armed guards, to actually show their allegiance to Mustafa Kemal. Fahrettin Bey, whose hesitations disappeared after his meeting with Mustafa Kemal in Ankara, showed his firm stance to take orders from Ankara, not from Istanbul. He took part in the XNUMXst TBMM as Mersin deputy. When groups were formed in the assembly, it did not enter either the first or the second group; Found in the group list called independents.
During the War of Independence, as the Commander of the 12th Corps, he took part in the suppression of the Konya Uprising, the 1st and 2nd İnönü Wars, the Sakarya Pitched Battle. In 1921 he was promoted to the rank of Mirliva and became Pasha. Subsequently, he was appointed to the Cavalry Group Command. In the last years of the War of Independence, his cavalry had great service in the battles around Uşak, Afyonkarahisar and Alaşehir. Altay was under the command of the first cavalry units that entered İzmir from the Emet district of Kütahya, chasing the Greek army that was kidnapped by the people of Emet and their cavalry. He welcomed the Commander-in-Chief Marshal Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha in Izmir on 10 September. He was promoted to the rank of Ferik due to his success in the Great Offensive.
After the liberation of İzmir, he headed towards Istanbul with the Cavalry Corps under his command over the Dardanelles. Consequently, the Dardanelles Crisis occurred in the UK, France and Canada, which had political effects.
He was a deputy from Mersin in the first period of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, but he was always on the front line. II. He took part in the Turkish Grand National Assembly as a deputy for İzmir. He also served as the Commander of the 5th Corps. He accompanied the Commander-in-Chief Müşir Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha's visit to İzmir in 1924. When it was not possible to carry out his military service and deputies together, he left the parliament in accordance with the request of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and remained in the army.
He was promoted to the rank of General in 1926. In 1927, he acted as the Chief of General Staff to replace Marshal Fevzi Pasha, who went to Europe for treatment. In 1928, with Afghan King Amanullah Khan, who visited Turkey Sureyya had his wife Queen hospitality. After the Menemen Incident in 1930, he was appointed to the command of martial law during the martial law declared in Menemen, Balıkesir, Manisa. In 1933, he was appointed to the 1st Army Command.
In 1934, the only country invited to the Red Army maneuvers was the head of the military delegation will go from Turkey. In the same year, he arbitrated in the border dispute between Iran and Afghanistan. The report he prepared became the basis for resolving the dispute. The report, called Atabay Arbitration, enabled the southern part of the present-day Iran-Afghanistan border to be drawn.
In 1936, the UK ruler VIII. He accompanied Edward on a tour of the Battle of Gallipoli. He participated in the Thrace Maneuvers in 1937. In 1938, a commander was appointed to the funeral ceremony for Atatürk. In 1945, while he was a member of the Supreme Military Council, he retired from the age limit.
Between 1946-1950, he was a deputy from the CHP for Burdur. After 1950, he withdrew from political life and settled in Istanbul. He died on October 25, 1974 while asleep. His body, buried in Aşiyan Cemetery, was transferred to the State Cemetery in Ankara in 1988.
Surname Law and "Altay" surname
In 1966, Fahrettin Pasha explained how he got the Altay surname during his visit to the Altay club:
“During our visit to İzmir during the armistice years with the Great Leader Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Altay was playing in Alsancak with a British naval mix. We watched the game together. When Altay defeated the British after a very good game, the Great Leader was very emotional, proud and expressed his appreciation for Altay. A lot of time has passed. Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha assigned me to settle a border dispute with Iran and I went to Tabriz. While I was in Tabriz; The surname law was negotiated in the Parliament and the surname Atatürk was given to Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha by alliance. The whole dorm congratulated him on his new surname. I immediately sent a telegram and congratulated them. The telegram received from Atatürk the next day was as follows: Mr. Fahrettin Altay Pasha, I congratulate you too, I wish you glorious and glorious days like Altay. My eyes were full when I received the telegram. Ataturk awarded me the surname Altay for the memory of the Altay match, which he was very happy with and watched together.
The real origin of the name Altay is the mountain ranges in Central Asia. This name is one of the two main words that describe the Ural-Altaic language and ethnic family.
The name of the Turkish-made Altay Tank, which started its work in 2007, was given in the memory of Fahrettin Altay, Commander of the 5th Cavalry Corps during the Turkish War of Independence. Fahrettin Altay Neighborhood in Karabağlar district of İzmir and Fahrettin Altay station of İzmir metro are also named after the commander.
- Operational independence of Turkey in the Cavalry Corps Muhârebât
- Cavalry Corps in Our War of Independence
- Islamic Religion
- The Decade War and Afterwards 1912-1922
- The Reasoning of the Izmir Disaster, Belleten, Issue: 89, 1959 (article)